Actinic keratoses, sun damage, age or "liver" spots are common forms of hyperpigmentation. As we age, they appear on the face, hands, chest or other areas frequently exposed to the sun. Sometimes acne can even leave dark spots after the condition clears. When triggered by other causes, such as hormonal changes, the discoloration is deeper in the epidermis, and the areas of darkening are usually larger. Pregnancy, for example, can trigger overproduction of melanin that causes the "mask of pregnancy" on the face and darkened skin on the abdomen and other areas. A physician must be consulted in these cases, and before any treatment administered. Wearing a sunscreen when outdoors is a must. The sunscreen must be > SPF30 (blocking both UVA and UVB). SilkPeel SPA and HYPERPIGMENTATION *By exfoliating the top layer of dead cells (epidermis) and infusing brightening agents SilkPeel SPA can improve the appearance of age spots other dark patches caused by the sun. * The appropriate topical solution: Brightening solution with: - Kojic Acid - a natural (derived from rice), effective lightener that helps fade spots by retarding excessive melanin production. It acts as an inhibitor of tyrosinase, which is responsible for the formation of melanin - the skin-coloring agent in skin. Kojic acid also reduces existing melanin in the skin thereby assisting in depigmentation. Like salicylic acid it also is known to have anti-microbial effects. - Arbutin - a natural (plant derived) ingredient, it is a highly-effective, stable skin whitening agent that works on the skin by transforming excessive melanin production into colorless substances as well as competing with certain enzymes that inhibit tyrosine oxidation. Kojic acid also reduces existing melanin in the skin thereby assisting in the depigmentation of the skin. Kojic acid is also known to have an anti-microbial effect. - Mulberry extract - obtained from the dried skin of the root of the mulberry, it acts as a whitening agent as it contains phenylflavanoids, an element that whitens human skin by inhibiting the activation of tyrosinase. Also known to be an anti-inflammatory and an emollient. * Number of Sessions: usually 6-8 procedures; weekly; monthly, maintenance thereafter. * Results - conditions usually improve after only a few weekly sessions, and further sessions keep improving and lightening the spots. Your skin care specialists may recommend lotions, creams and other skin products in between sessions to enhance and speed up results. It is most advisable to avoid the sun and use sunscreen when outdoors.